Located at the back of the eye, the retina collects focused light from the lens and transforms it into neurological signals. It is a thin layer of tissue that consists of photoreceptor cells known as rods and cones, as well as supplemental bipolar, ganglion, horizontal, and amacrine cells.
The photoreceptor cells lie closest to the interior of the eye. These cells include an outer section of photopigment, which collects light signals and initiates the process of signal transformation.
Cones, concentrated at the center of the retina, generate sharply detailed signals rich in color. The central area of the retina, or fovea, includes only these cells. Rods, which provide less color information and resolution but are more light sensitive, appear in the retina as it extends outward. Rods provide vision in low light and are present all the way to the edge of the retina itself.
Details of light perception also result from the interactions between photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and horizontal cells. Because these cells are located laterally across the retina, they are able to transmit varying types of information simultaneously and generate a complete visual picture.